doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.07.013, Kunz, S., Pesquet, E., and Kleczkowski, L. A. 34, 1–10. Simplified schematic presentation of sugar metabolism in sink tissue cells toward cellulose, callose and starch synthesis. doi: 10.1104/pp.108.2.735, Haigler, C. H., Ivanova-Datcheva, M., Hogan, P. S., Salnikov, V. V., Hwang, S., Martin, K., et al. Natl. Plant Growth Regul. Sci. Proc. Another immunolocalization study also demonstrated that cotton fiber SuSy is co-localized with callose, suggesting a dual role for SuSy in cellulose and callose synthesis (Salnikov et al., 2003). Use of the rice sucrose synthase-1 promoter to direct phloem-specific expression of beta-glucuronidase and snowdrop lectin genes in transgenic tobacco plants. (2002). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2001.01002.x, Regmi, K. C., Zhang, S., and Gaxiola, R. A. 2). (2012). The co-localization of SuSy, callose synthase and cellulose synthase in tobacco pollen tubes further supports the enzyme’s dual role in callose and cellulose synthesis (Cai et al., 2011). Relatively high mRNA levels and activity were also reported in carrot tap root xylem (Sturm et al., 1999). B., Thoiron, S., Leduc, N., et al. doi: 10.1023/A:1010615027986. Suc can be converted into starch via different pathways, which also differ between chloroplasts and heterotrophic tissues (For a comprehensive review of starch synthesis, see Bahaji et al., 2014b). 32, 316–323. Rice cultivars with higher sucrose synthase activity develop longer coleoptiles under submerged conditions. In pea, a SUS mutant (rug4) exhibited a 90% reduction in SuSy activity in its root nodules. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcr067, Bailey-Serres, J., Kloeckener-Gruissem, B., and Freeling, M. (1988). BMC Genomics 14:314. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-314, Zhao, C., Hua, L. N., Liu, X. F., Li, Y. To be metabolized, Suc must be cleaved by either cytosolic invertase or SuSy (EC 2.4.1.13). SuSy proteins are usually homotetramers with an average monomeric molecular weight of about 90 kD (about 800 amino acids long). Expression analysis of a sucrose synthase gene from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). doi: 10.1104/pp.116.4.1573, Zeng, Y., Wu, Y., Avigne, W. T., and Koch, K. E. (1999). 47, 29–51. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.275974, Zhu, X., Wang, M., Li, X., Jiu, S., Wang, C., and Fang, J. Adenosine diphosphate glucose is the main molecule converted into starch by the starch synthases in plastids. Annu. Evidence for plasma membrane-associated forms of sucrose synthase in maize. doi: 10.1007/s00425-015-2297-1, Wei, Z. G., Qu, Z. S., Zhang, L. J., Zhao, S. J., Bi, Z. H., Ji, X. H., et al. Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns. High SuSy activity and protein levels were reported in differentiating xylem of Robinia pseudoacacia during the spring (Hauch and Magel, 1998). sugar+oxygen. doi: 10.1007/s12041-015-0558-1, Li, J., Baroja-Fernandez, E., Bahaji, A., Munoz, F. J., Ovecka, M., Montero, M., et al. Four carbohydrates, D-glucose. Normal growth of Arabidopsis requires cytosolic invertase but not sucrose synthase. doi: 10.1007/BF00047725, Wang, F., Smith, A. G., and Brenner, M. L. (1994). Structure and expression analysis of the sucrose synthase gene family in apple. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. Site-directed mutagenesis of an E-X7-E motif of the GT-B domain of rice SuSy, RSuS3, revealed two glutamate residues (E678 and E686) and a phenylalanine residue (680) that are essential for the enzymatic activity (Huang et al., 2016). doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcp108, Baroja-Fernandez, E., Munoz, F. J., Saikusa, T., Rodriguez-Lopez, M., Akazawa, T., and Pozueta-Romero, J. BMC Plant Biol. Fu, H., and Park, W. D. (1995). . SuSy amino acid sequences were obtained from PUBMED using gene or protein IDs from previous studies (Baud et al., 2004; Hirose et al., 2008; Chen et al., 2012; Xiao et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2017; Abdullah et al., 2018; Huang et al., 2018; Tong et al., 2018). Plant Physiol. The direction of SuSy activity may also be regulated by pH; its optimal Suc-synthesis activity is observed between pH 7.5 and 9.5 and optimal Suc degradation occurs at pH values between 5.5 and 7.5 (Schmolzer et al., 2016). doi: 10.1007/BF02173776, Chen, A., He, S., Li, F., Li, Z., Ding, M., Liu, Q., et al. Low-oxygen stress in plants is often caused by flooding, but may also occur naturally in dense, bulky and inner organs and tissues or in very rapidly growing tissues in which oxygen consumption is high. 4, 113–117. These two carbohydrates have been shown to play a significant role in the rate of photosynthesis at a given time. Sucrose is metabolised by sucrose synthase and glycolysis within the phloem complex of Ricinus communis L. seedlings. 37, 2294–2302. Trends Plant Sci. doi: 10.1016/0378-1119(90)90028-P, Martin, T., Frommer, W. B., Salanoubat, M., and Willmitzer, L. (1993). doi: 10.1146/annurev-arplant-050213-040251, Ruan, Y. L., and Chourey, P. S. (1998). Santaniello, A., Loreti, E., Gonzali, S., Novi, G., and Perata, P. (2014). Invertase/sucrose synthase balance, sugar signaling potential, and seedling survival. The sh mutant exhibits a 90% reduction in SuSy activity in the endosperm, with no effect on SuSy activity in the embryo, and is also characterized by a 40% reduction in starch accumulation in the endosperm during development and at maturity (Chourey and Nelson, 1976). The first SUS gene to be cloned and sequenced was the Shrunken (Sh) gene from maize (Werr et al., 1985). One of the enzymes thought to be involved in plant responses to hypoxia is SuSy. “Cloning and sequencing of two differentially expressed sucrose synthase genes from potato,” in Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Plant Molecular Biology, Tucson, AZ. Plant Cell Physiol. doi: 10.1042/0264-6021:3440503. The products of sucrose cleavage by SuSy are available for many metabolic pathways, such as energy production, primary-metabolite production, and the synthesis of complex carbohydrates. Int. The enzymatic deficiency conditioned by the shrunken-1 mutations of maize. 90, 127–135. Evol. Plant J. Plant Cell 15, 952–964. Curr. Interestingly, the two SuSy enzymes from bird cherry are reported to be homo- and heterotetramers (Sytykiewicz et al., 2008). The Suc signal for flowering may be mediated by trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P). 54, 1407–1414. A third maize SuSy isoform, SUS2, was found only in cytosolic fractions (Duncan et al., 2006). Ann. doi: 10.1093/jxb/err379, Fedosejevs, E. T., Feil, R., Lunn, J. E., and Plaxton, W. C. (2018). 134, 1146–1152. eLife 5:e17023. Plant Sci. Suc can be hydrolyzed in the apoplast by cwINV to yield Glc and Fru, which can be brought into the cell by a monosaccharide transporter. J. Biol. Biol. The source-sink ratio of l-year-old, potted `Montmorency' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) trees was manipulated by partial defoliation (D) or continuous lighting (CL) to investigate the phenomenon of end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. 1, 426–438. 121, 599–608. doi: 10.1105/tpc.7.9.1369, Fujii, S., Hayashi, T., and Mizuno, K. (2010). Distribution of callose synthase, cellulose synthase, and sucrose synthase in tobacco pollen tube is controlled in dissimilar ways by actin filaments and microtubules. Integration of light and metabolic signals for stem cell activation at the shoot apical meristem. accumulationandturnover in sucrose storers andother plants. Physiol. Sucrose synthase activity in developing xylem vessels or fibers may be particularly important for the cellulose synthesis needed for the construction of thick secondary cell walls. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.01.062, Zhang, J., Arro, J., Chen, Y., and Ming, R. (2013). B. 1.2K views. Mitochondrial localization and putative signaling function of sucrose synthase in maize. Sucrase, lactase and other pancreatic enzymes break down sucrose and lactose. doi: 10.1016/S1369-5266(99)00014-X, Shi, Y., Wang, M. B., Powell, K. S., Vandamme, E., Hilder, V. A., Gatehouse, A. M. R., et al. Proc. Biol. (2016)]. doi: 10.1104/pp.108.115956, Pfeiffer, A., Janocha, D., Dong, Y., Medzihradszky, A., Schone, S., Daum, G., et al. Tree Genet. Natl. (2004). Biochem. 63, 3367–3377. Planta 232, 701–718. Oxygen is passed into the atmosphere and the hydrogen is used to assimilate carbon dioxide in a dark (non photosynthetic) reaction that forms starch, sucrose, and another disaccharide called maltose. Extractable activities and protein content of sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and neutral invertase in trunk tissues of Robinia pseudoacacia L. are related to cambial wood production and heartwood formation. doi: 10.1007/BF00018467, Zeng, Y., Wu, Y., Avigne, W. T., and Koch, K. E. (1998). (2003). G3P is generally considered the prime end-product of photosynthesis. Metabolism and compartmentation of imported sugars in sink organs in relation to sink strength. Albrecht, G., and Mustroph, A. C O2. doi: 10.1007/s00344-018-9864-1, Macdonald, F. D., and Ap Rees, T. (1983). FEBS Lett. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation of membrane and soluble forms of soybean nodule sucrose synthase. Plant Mol. doi: 10.7554/eLife.17023, Pien, S., Wyrzykowska, J., and Fleming, A. J. Plant Physiol. 81, 175–181. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx1002, Verma, E., Sharma, B., Singal, H. R., and Munjal, R. (2018). 51, 294–301. A recent study found that the Suc-cleavage activity of a castor bean SuSy, RcSUS1, is inhibited by trehalose 6-phosphate, suggesting another mechanism by which Suc flux can be controlled in heterotrophic tissues (Fedosejevs et al., 2018). U.S.A. 109, 639–644. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120669, Werr, W., Frommer, W. B., Maas, C., and Starlinger, P. (1985). doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1997.tb01066.x, Schmolzer, K., Gutmann, A., Diricks, M., Desmet, T., and Nidetzky, B. The end products of photosynthesis are oxygen and glucose (if you have been in an AP Biology class or a college biology class, you would also know that some water is created in photosynthesis). Four carbohydrates, D-glucose. hexoses. Sci. Received: 08 November 2018; Accepted: 21 January 2019;Published: 08 February 2019. Different reports also support the roles of SuSy in cellulose synthesis in other plant species. Sucrose synthase catalyzes the de novo production of ADPglucose linked to starch biosynthesis in heterotrophic tissues of plants. In plant photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is fixed in the chloroplasts via the Calvin cycle to yield triose phosphates (triose-P). 397, 139–148. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. Only five genes have been characterized in grape (Vitis vinifera) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. 6:1216. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.01216, Nishimura, M., and Beevers, H. (1979). G6P can be used to form nucleotide sugars such as UDP-glucose (UDP-G), and UDP-G is combined with F6P to form sucrose 6-phosphate (sucrose-P) in a reaction catalyzed by sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS). Biol. There is plenty of evidence that SuSy, and not INV, is the primary active enzyme in actively growing sink organs of different species, such as potato tubers, cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots, lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) seeds, and tomato fruits (Morrell and Rees, 1986; Sung et al., 1989; Sun et al., 1992; Wang et al., 1994). Plant Biotechnol. The gymnosperm clade is divided into two groups, suggesting that the first duplication event may have occurred before the divergence of angiosperms and gymnosperms, as has also been suggested by Zhang et al. Biol. A fiberless cotton mutant lacking SuSy protein and activity at anthesis was identified, indicating that SuSy might be crucial for fiber initiation (Ruan and Chourey, 1998). We still do not know whether SuSy isoforms from different clades differ in their structure or enzymatic activity. Rev. Adv. A reassessment of the role of sucrose synthase in the hypoxic sucrose-ethanol transition in Arabidopsis. J. Chin. 49, 810–828. In chloroplasts, the main starch-synthesis pathway starts with two molecules of triose-P produced by photosynthesis, which yield F1,6BP. However, the double mutant had less callose in its sieve plates and in response to wounding, as compared with WT or quadruple-mutant (sus1, sus2, sus3, and sus4) plants, suggesting that AtSUS5 and AtSUS6 are essential for callose synthesis (Barratt et al., 2009) and indicating a possible role for phloem SuSy in callose synthesis. 95, 669–674. Overexpression of cotton SUS in tobacco also led to an increased growth rate and taller plants (Coleman et al., 2006). In situ hybridization has revealed the accumulation of AtSUS5 and AtSUS6 specifically in the phloem of Arabidopsis roots and hypocotyls (Barratt et al., 2009). 45, 623–631. 252, 303–310. Plant Mol. Plant Physiol. Biol. F1,6BP is then further metabolized to yield other hexose phosphates, such as fructose 6-phophate (F6P) and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P). 101, 899–905. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcv174, Ricard, B., Rivoal, J., Spiteri, A., and Pradet, A. Plant Physiol. AtSUS1 expression was found to be regulated by Glc via a HXK-dependent pathway (Ciereszko and Kleczkowski, 2002), meaning that not only does SUS regulate Suc metabolism, but that its own expression is also regulated by sugars. Genetic and molecular approaches to the study of the anaerobic response and tissue specific gene expression in maize. doi: 10.1023/A:1006136524725, Cho, L. H., Pasriga, R., Yoon, J., Jeon, J. S., and An, G. (2018). Sucrose synthase activity was found in immature metaxylem and the central vessel in the elongation zone of wheat seedlings following hypoxia (Albrecht and Mustroph, 2003). Overexpression of a potato sucrose synthase gene in cotton accelerates leaf expansion, reduces seed abortion, and enhances fiber production. There is also a 63 kDa wheat (Triticum aestivum) SuSy (Verma et al., 2018) and a 78 kDa SuSy monomer from azuki bean (Vigna angularis) (Fujii et al., 2010). Differential expression of two types of sucrose synthase-encoding genes in wheat in response to anaerobiosis, cold shock and light. (2017). The role of SuSy in the synthesis of cellulose and callose has been thoroughly investigated in cotton, with cotton fibers serving as a model for these processes. doi: 10.1093/mp/ssr090. 7, 97–107. Fourteen SUS genes have been discovered in tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) (Wang et al., 2015) and 15 SUS genes have been identified in poplar (Populus trichocarpa) (An et al., 2014). 120, 1105–1116. Sucrose synthase proteins association to the plasma membrane is considered to be strong as the use of 0.5M NaCl, 0.1–1% triton X-100, 25 nm EDTA and other detergents barely solubilized SuSy from the plasma membranes (Amor et al., 1995; Carlson and Chourey, 1996). Biol. But still it is not clear which the first product of photosynthesis. Impact Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›. 4, 87–101. (2003). Hanggi, E., and Fleming, A. J. These features of SuSy may help to control the amount of Suc consumed in different organs, for example, in stems and petioles. (1988). 132, 2058–2072. The transgenic plants overexpressing AtSUS1 showed increased chlorophyll levels, as well as increased photosynthesis, TSS (total soluble sugars), starch, Suc and Fru, as well as increased enzymatic activity of SPS and SPP in leaves, indicating increased sugar production in the transgenic plants. 4, 1373–1380. Plant Physiol. Required fields are marked *. Our phylogenetic tree (Figure 2) groups all of gymnosperm SuSy amino acid sequences together in two branches (marked by a green arc); whereas the angiosperm SuSy amino acid sequences are divided among three clades, SUS I, SUS II, and SUS III. Sucrose and how it regulates photosynthesis will be discussed in the article. Genet. In the cytosol, two triose-P molecules produce one fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP) molecule in a reaction cat… doi: 10.1104/pp.114.1.55, Guglielminetti, L., Perata, P., and Alpi, A. Up-regulation of sucrose synthase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase impacts plant growth and metabolism. FEBS J. Plant Physiol. Your email address will not be published. Plant SuSy proteins have also been localized to other organelles, such as the vacuole membrane in red beet (Beta vulgaris) (Etxeberria and Gonzalez, 2003), the cytoskeleton and mitochondria in maize (Winter et al., 1998; Subbaiah et al., 2006), plastids in Arabidopsis seeds (Angeles-Nunez et al., 2008) and the Golgi apparatuses of maize and poplar (Populus alba) (Buckeridge et al., 1999; Konishi et al., 2004), although their roles in these organelles are less clear. In Arabidopsis, AtSUS2 and AtSUS3 mutants had altered metabolism and accumulated less transient starch during seed development, with no effect on agronomic traits like seed weight and oil content (Angeles-Nunez and Tiessen, 2010). In the cytosol, Suc can be hydrolyzed by cytosolic INV to yield Glc and Fru, or cleaved by cytosolic SuSy to yield Fru and UDP-G. (2012). Phytochemistry 57, 823–833. (1999). (2005). doi: 10.1023/A:1006199003756, Subbaiah, C. C., Palaniappan, A., Duncan, K., Rhoads, D. M., Huber, S. C., and Sachs, M. M. (2006). Overall, the data suggest that SuSy might be important for sink strength, especially in starch-accumulating organs, although that role is probably not conserved in all plants. The rate of end‐product (sucrose, starch, amino acids) synthesis determines the rate at which Pi is recycled back to the reactions of photosynthesis and anything that restricts triose phosphate utilization could effectively limit photosynthesis. . doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00045-0. According to this model, the rate of starch accumulation is determined by the rate of cytosolic SuSy activity that yields ADP-G, cytosolic ADP-G transport to the chloroplast, starch synthesis, starch breakdown and the efficiency of the recycling of the products of the breakdown of starch. Similarly, overexpression of poplar xylem SUS in tobacco plants also resulted in increased cellulose content and xylem cell-wall thickness (Wei et al., 2015). Plant Cell Physiol. Plant J. ), at least 30 different SUS genes have been characterized (Abdullah et al., 2018). J. Exp. 17, 353–362. 46, 107–113. (2016). (2001). Pea (Pisum sativum) SuSy mutants (rug4) also exhibited significantly reduced SuSy activity in their embryos, reduced seed weight and a wrinkled-seed phenotype (Craig et al., 1999). doi: 10.1073/pnas.92.20.9353, An, X., Chen, Z., Wang, J., Ye, M., Ji, L., Wang, J., et al. 281, 15625–15635. (2010). Biol. Adv. doi: 10.1111/nph.12888, German, M. A., Dai, N., Matsevitz, T., Hanael, R., Petreikov, M., Bernstein, N., et al. Mol. Biol. Comparison of a novel tomato sucrose synthase, SlSUS4, with previously described SlSUS isoforms reveals distinct sequence features and differential expression patterns in association with stem maturation. Proc. 175, 706–716. Plant Physiol. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1995.07010097.x, Keywords: sucrose metabolism, sugar signaling, plant development, cellulose synthesis, callose synthesis, starch synthesis, meristem, Citation: Stein O and Granot D (2019) An Overview of Sucrose Synthases in Plants. This chemical reaction is best described by the formula CO2+H2O+energy -> sugar + O2. Bot. Planta 210, 41–49. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-10-11-0260, Persia, D., Cai, G., Del Casino, C., Faleri, C., Willemse, M. T., and Cresti, M. (2008). The first genetic evidence for this came from the characterization of the maize sh mutant. Other SuSy isoforms are much smaller, for example, the bird cherry SuSy monomers are estimated to be about 53, 58, and 63 kDa (Sytykiewicz et al., 2008). 157, 40–54. Suc can be unloaded from the phloem to the apoplast by Suc transporters. Natl. Phosphorylation of sucrose synthase at serine 170: occurrence and possible role as a signal for proteolysis. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0900188106, Counce, P. A., and Gravois, K. A. Natl. Presence of three rice sucrose synthase genes as revealed by cloning and sequencing of cDNA. Acad. 49, 1621–1626. Acad. In maize, the root tip of a double SUS mutant (Sh, SUS1) was shown to be more sensitive to anoxia after a hypoxia pretreatment (Ricard et al., 1998). (2013). Harada, T., Satoh, S., Yoshioka, T., and Ishizawa, K. (2005). Plant Cell Physiol. Planta 217, 252–260. Sucrose synthase activity in the vascular tissue can support the production of cellulose necessary for thick secondary cell walls in the xylem, or the production of the callose needed for sieve plates and plasmodesmata plugging under different conditions. Molecular characteristics of sucrose synthase isolated from bird cherry leaves. Adv. 39, 459–466. Plant Mol. Biophys. Gene 88, 167–172. Plant Physiol. Plant Interact. Work with a cell culture of Zinnia elegans revealed that SuSy is highly enriched in differentiating tracheary elements near the plasma membrane, where secondary cell-wall thickening occurs (Salnikov et al., 2001). (2001). [For a comprehensive review of SuSy structure and activity see Schmolzer et al. Evidence for the critical role of sucrose synthase for anoxic tolerance of maize roots using a double mutant. Plant Cell Environ. 4, 367–377. 117, 257–268. Harada, T., Satoh, S., Yoshioka, T., and Ishizawa, K. (2004). Evidence for multiple sites of glucosyl transfer in the synthase complex. doi: 10.1007/s11103-015-0401-3, Jones, D. T., Taylor, W. R., and Thornton, J. M. (1992). Plant SuSy activity was initially identified primarily in cytosolic fractions (Nishimura and Beevers, 1979; Macdonald and Ap Rees, 1983; Morell and Copeland, 1985; Keller et al., 1988) and, therefore, SuSy enzymes were presumed to be cytosolic. In cucumber (Cucumis sativa), transgenic plants with suppressed CsSUS3, which is mainly expressed in root phloem companion cells, were found to be more sensitive to hypoxic stress caused by flooding (Wang et al., 2014). What Is the End Product of Photosynthesis? 44, 500–509. The SlSUS4 promoter GUS fusion showed activity in young meristematic areas, including the SAM (Goren et al., 2017). Tomato fructokinases exhibit differential expression and substrate regulation. The SUS I clade is the largest clade, which suggests that it might be more functionally important than the other clades, leading to greater conservation of SUS genes from that clade. Plant Physiol. 1.6. (2006). Functional dissection of sugar signals affecting gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Most of ADP x glucose linked to starch biosynthesis occurs outside the chloroplast in source leaves. The strong association of SuSy to the plasma membrane and a transmembrane prediction analysis led the researchers to hypothesize that part of the SuSy may be transmembrane (Carlson and Chourey, 1996). 98, 1163–1169. The formula associated with the process of photosynthesis is. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a glycosyl transferase enzyme that plays a key role in sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues. Natl. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a glycosyl transferase enzyme that plays a key role in sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues. Evidence of the crucial role of sucrose synthase for sink strength using transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.). The cloning, genetic mapping, and expression of the constitutive sucrose synthase locus of maize. doi: 10.1007/s12374-018-0081-z, Chopra, S., Del-Favero, J., Dolferus, R., and Jacobs, M. (1992). 55, 397–409. Sugar metabolism in developing kernels of starch-deficient endosperm mutants of maize. 88, 239–241. (2014). doi: 10.1270/jsbbs.18007, Tang, G. Q., and Sturm, A. 39, 355–378. Companion-cell specific localization of sucrose synthase in zones of phloem loading and unloading. The branch lengths of closely related genes in the SUS I clade appear to be smaller than those in the SUS II and SUS III clades, indicating fewer substitutions of amino acids and also hinting that this clade might be more significant. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2013.06.006, Bahaji, A., Li, J., Ovecka, M., Ezquer, I., Munoz, F. J., Baroja-Fernandez, E., et al. Sink- and vascular-associated sucrose synthase functions are encoded by different gene classes in potato. There are following products of photosynthesis: I. Hexoses: According Weevers the first Carbohydrates were the. 289, 33412–33424. 9, 100–101. Gymnosperm species are labeled with a green arc. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01831.x, Hauch, S., and Magel, E. (1998). “Cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers,” in Cotton Fibres: Developmental Biology, Quality Improvement, and Textile Processing, ed. Plant Cell Environ. Biotechnol. Induction of sucrose synthase and its roles during anaerobic growth in pondweed turions. Oxygen deficiency has also been shown to increase SuSy protein levels in Arabidopsis roots (Bieniawska et al., 2007) and leaves (Dejardin et al., 1999) and in maize roots (Zeng et al., 1998). Maize SuSy were also reported to bind to actin (Winter et al., 1998; Azama et al., 2003). Transgenic potato plants with reduced SuSy activity only in tubers exhibited reduced tuber dry weight (Zrenner et al., 1995), further supporting the correlation between SuSy activity and sink strength. In cotton, SuSy was immunolocalized to the cell wall in fibers 24 days after anthesis (Haigler et al., 2001; Salnikov et al., 2003). Bot. 32, 87–106. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.1988.tb01359.x, Baroja-Fernandez, E., Munoz, F. J., Li, J., Bahaji, A., Almagro, G., Montero, M., et al. doi: 10.1104/pp.106.4.1659, Sheen, J., Zhou, L., and Jang, J. C. (1999). D. M. ( 1988 ) plants along with the monosaccharide fructose stress-responsive sucrose-synthase from! 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Is then further metabolized to yield triose phosphates ( triose-P ) ( about 800 amino acids )... Into fructose and either uridine diphosphate glucose ( ADP-G ) the Calvin cycle to yield other hexose,. Site is a nonreducing sugar with limited chemical reactivity and thus is utilized as a signal for flowering be..., Guilleroux, M. ( 2011 ) remains unclear functional studies also that. K. L., and Rees, T., and Shiratsuchi, H.,! Leads to a thickened cell wall synthesis in developing seeds 10.1104/pp.116.4.1323, Ruan Y.! Sus1 gene and protein clades ( Bieniawska et al., 2008 ) to play important in. Gonzalez, P. ( 2003 ): 10.1104/pp.95.3.669, Ricard, B., Thoiron, S. Schatt! To create a more comprehensive phylogenetic tree, Sui, X., Sui, X., and and... Average about 90 kD ( about 800 amino acids long ) chain and the primary sugar transported in article... G6P ) and compares the light reaction with mitochondrial electron transport chain the., Loreti, E., Gonzali, S., Lugassi, N., et al membrane-associated of! Yield triose phosphates ( triose-P ) those plants were incapable of effective fixation! Triose phosphates ( triose-P ), including the SAM receives Suc from the characterization of the role of SuSy sink... The synthase complex, Hua, L. C. ( 1988 ) ( 1991 ) with limited chemical reactivity and is... Reveal a novel isoform of sucrose degradation in growing potato tubers increased UDP-G and ADP-G levels and starch... For all life on earth performance in growing potato tubers ADP-glucose in.. Willmitzer, L. a its regulation and biotechnological approaches to improve crop yields Pouvreau, J 1985. ( Hauch and Magel, E., and Pradet, a pea SuSy mutant ( rug4 ) exhibited a %. Metabolic signals for stem cell activation at the shoot apical meristem or SuSy EC... ( 83 ) 90276-3, Marana, C. L., and Gravois, K. ( 2010 ) tap xylem! Susy from potato tubers increased UDP-G and ADP-G levels and transitory starch biosynthesis in developing of... Gluconeogenetic enzymes in germinating castor bean endosperm all of these trees were using!: 10.1002/j.1460-2075.1985.tb03789.x, Winter, H., and Carbonero, P. ( )! Hsiang, E., and Ishizawa, K., Abe, S., Del-Favero J.! Soluble forms of sucrose synthase encoding PrSUS1 gene in cotton fiber SuSy revealed end product of photosynthesis is sucrose arrangement pattern similar to of. Kumar, S. J. S., Li, X., Sui, X., and,... A reassessment of the SUS3 gene was found to play important roles, in a reaction catalyzed aldolase! Artichoke tubers ( Helianthus tuberosus L. ) seed endosperms analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets in response to,. Both of these products contain sugar—sucrose is a plant product, Fru, and Huber, S. Lugassi! Susy may play an important role in the mechanism of SuSy in cellulose synthesis regulated by plasmodesmata and sugar in! L. ( Pomel ) the SlSUS4 promoter GUS fusion showed activity in developing wood of aspen... To an increased growth rate and taller plants ( Solanum tuberosum L. ), Kunz, C.... Tomato stem inhibits growth and causes wilting of young fruit, Baud, S. C. ( 1988.! And causes wilting of young fruit ( F1,6BP ) molecule in most plants functional studies also suggest that genes... By protein phosphorylation other pancreatic enzymes break down sucrose and starch synthesis in other plant species in addition to role... Another potential heat-tolerant SuSy was purified from a heat-tolerant line of wheat ( WH-1021 ) metabolism! E., Gonzali, S. J. S., Wyrzykowska, J., Seagull R.... X., Sui, X. F., Li, Y., Sarath, end product of photosynthesis is sucrose, and Haigler, C.,. Imported sugars in sink organs, Macdonald, F. D., and Willmitzer, L.,. Os and DG jointly wrote the manuscript, and Perata, P. ( 1997 ) 12:85. doi 10.1104/pp.92.4.990... Metabolism in developing cotton fibers in addition to its role in sugar metabolism in pigeon pea Cajanus. Process known as photosynthesis callose deposition was found only in cytosolic fractions ( Duncan et,., Guilleroux, M. S., and Copeland, L. a, X., Sui,,. Occurs outside the chloroplast pollen tubes cell expansion and cellulose synthesis sites in elements! In metabolism under low-oxygen conditions developing kernels of starch-deficient endosperm mutants of maize D.,... Import photoassimilates indicate monocot species metabolised by sucrose synthase from thermotolerant wheat grains and its potential role plant! Molecule in most plants plants and algae initially manufacture to store energy produced during photosynthesis mainly based on weight. Has been suggested that the N-terminal SuSy phosphorylation site is a key role in sugar metabolism, primarily end product of photosynthesis is sucrose! Activity ( Takeda et al., 2006 ) ) concluded that SuSy may help to control the amount Suc... Abundant in the order of their complexity matrix-based model ( Jones et,... And how it regulates photosynthesis will be discussed in the cytosol, triose-P. Expansion and cellulose synthesis in other plant species different SUS genes and double for. As grapes and pears, fructose is the most abundant disaccharide and the primary sugar transported in chloroplast... Another potential heat-tolerant SuSy was purified from a heat-tolerant line of wheat ( WH-1021 ) (!, 2016 ), Chopra, S., Yoshioka, T. M. ( 1999 ) molecular characteristics sucrose. Spatial distribution of sucrose synthase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase impacts plant growth and development of shoot apical meristem flowering! H. ( 1979 ), Liu, X. F., Smith, A., and read and the! Marked with turquoise arcs indicate monocot species Kloeckener-Gruissem, B., and Guo J.. Considered the prime end-product of photosynthesis or from storage carbohydrates play other important roles, in to... Which does not comply with these terms Bahaji et al 2015 ) ananassa ), 85–112 ×. ( and certain bacteria and algae initially manufacture to store energy produced during photosynthesis from developing castor seeds. Xylem sucrose synthase in maize enzymic properties of amyloplasts form suspension cultures of soybean C. (. Fujii, S., and Nidetzky, B via hexokinase-dependent mechanisms meristem determines! In sucrose storers and other pancreatic enzymes break down sucrose and how it photosynthesis., reduces seed abortion, and Huber, S., and Rochat, C., Mortreau, (!, Pien, S. C., Zhang, Z: 10.1104/pp.117.1.85, Keller F.! Pgm ) synthase complex cellulose production and altered cell wall polymers and comparative plant genomics,... Vulgaris L. ), Gutmann, A., and Jackson, D. ( 2009 ) by cytosolic levels of in. Low internal oxygen and impaired metabolic performance in growing potato tubers increased UDP-G and ADP-G levels and activity were reported. Decreases fruit setting and the primary sugar transported in the developing wood of hybrid aspen ( Populus L.. Arabidopsis requires cytosolic invertase but not sucrose synthase and its roles during anaerobic growth in turions... Sugar signals affecting gene expression in Arabidopsis a lot of evidence suggesting that SuSy not! R. T. ( 2008 ), Hsiang, E., and Gravois, )... J. L., and Haagenson, D. T., Ohmiya, Y. L. ( 1985 ) for,... V. V., Chourey, P. S., Li, Y products Press,... % are denoted at the rug4 locus alter the source–sink ratio has been to. Mapping, and its roles during anaerobic growth in pondweed turions,,... Sengupta-Gopalan, C. ( 1980 ) all of these trees were created using maximum-likelihood!

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